President Ferdinand Marcos

A Thesis About the Marcos Truth

Posts Tagged ‘Philippines’

V. Military Awards and Decorations

Posted by rommelsibay on November 27, 2009

Award Entitlements of Ferdinand Edralin Marcos, Infantry, Philippine Army

1.    A review of the Official Military Record of Ferdinand Edralin Marcos, ASN: 0-41394, Infantry, Philippine Army, indicates that he is entitled to the following awards and decorations.

Individual Decorations:
Distinguished Service Cross
Silver Star
Purple Heart (1OLC)
Prisoner of War

Service Decorations:
American Defense Service Medal with Clasp and Bronze Service Star
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with 3 Bronze Service Stars
World War II Victory Medal
Philippine Defense Ribbon with 1 Bronze Service Star
Philippine Liberation Ribbon with 1 Bronze Service Star
Philippine Independence Ribbon

Unit Awards:
Presidential Unit Citation

Signed by Major, GS Daniel Gibson
Chief, Military Awards Branch


Purple Heart Medal
Wounded Soldier’s Medal
Wounded Personnel Medal (1st BAL)
Wounded Personnel Medal (2nd BAL)
Wounded Personnel Medal (3rd BAL)
Philippine Defense Medal & Ribbon w/ Three Bronze Stars (P.I.)
Philippine Liberation Medal & Ribbon – (P.I.)
Philippine Independence Ribbon – (P.I.)
American Defense Medal & Ribbon – (U.S.A.)
Asiatic Pacific Theater Medal & Ribbon – (U.S.A.)
World War II Victory Medal & Ribbon – (U.S.A.)
Philippine Republic Presidential Unit Citation Badge – (P.I.)
Distinguished Unit Citation Badge w/ Two Oak Leaf Clusters – (U.S.A.)

Signed by Lt. Colonel Antonio P. Martin
Assistant Adjutant General

3. Records of Colonel Ferdinand E. Marcos 0-41394, PA

Born: Sarrat, Ilocos Norte – 11 September 1917
Educational Attainment: LLB – UP
Military School Attended: No record.
Appointment and Promotions:
3Lt, Inf L/R of Res Officers as of 15 Jun 40.
1Lt (USAFFE) – 10 Feb 42 (SPAV)
Major (Grla) – 12 Dec 44 (SPAV)
Capt (P) – 18 Mar 48 (GO 26 HNDF s-50)
Major (P) – 24 Feb 51 (GO 128, GHQ AFP s-51)
Colonel (Ad-Interim) – 28 Aug 62 (para 10 SO 68, GHQ AFP s-62)
Colonel (Ad-Interim) – 24 May 63 pur to provisions Art VII, Sec 10, para(4) of the Constitution (para 13 SO 254, GHQ AFP s-63)
Colonel (P) – 13 Jul 63 (GO 265 GHQ AFP s-64)


CAD & Inducted into the USAFFE – 15 Nov 41
Asst G-2, 21st Div fr 16 Nov 41 to 8 Apr 42 (F-23)
Captured while on mission tp recapture Gen Capinpin – 9 Apr 42
POW, Camp O’Donnell fr 9 Apr 42 to 4 Aug 42 (F-23)
Released as POW – 4 Aug 42 (F-23)
Captured and concentrated at Fort Santiago fr 5 Aug to 12 Aug 42;
Escaped on 12 Aug 42 (F-23)
CO, “Maharlika” Unit (Grla) fr 16 Oct 42 to 12 Dec 44 (F-23)
On G-2 mission with USAFIP NL – 12 Dec 44 (Cfm by para 6 SO 1, Hq 14th Inf USAFIP NL s-45)
Attached to USAFIP NL – 13 Dec 44 to 30 Apr 45 (F-23)
Civil Affairs, GHQ USAFIP NL fr 1 May 45 to 6 Jan 46 (F-23)
Judge Advocate General, 2nd Inf Div – 7 Jan 46 (para 6 SO 5 Hq USAFIPAC s-46)
Processed 6 Feb 46 (F-23)
Relieved fr the active svc, PA for the convenience of the gov’t with the rank of Major eeff 1 Mar 46 (para 1 SO 52 HPA s-46)


Medal of Valor
Distinguished Conduct Star
Distinguished Conduct Star (1st BAL)
Distinguished Conduct Star (2nd BAL)
Distinguished Service Cross
Distinguished Service Star
Distinguished Service Star (1st BAL)
Silver Star Medal
Gold Cross Medal

4. Awards received by Ferdinand E. Marcos from the United States Government during World War II:

During the second State Visit to the United States of President Marcos, he met with Secretary of Defense Cuspar W. Weinberger at the Pentagon on September 18, 1982. At that meeting Secretary Weinberger presented President Marcos with a glass case containing the Distinguished Service Cross, the Silver Star, and the Purple Heart, all awards the Philippine leader received from the United States Government during World War II.

General Mateo Capinpin, Commanding General of the 21st Division (PA) attested the following:

While an Assistant Intelligence Officer with designation as Combat Intelligence Officer of the 21st Division, USAFFE in Bataan, then 1st Lieut. Marcos was awarded by Gen. Douglas MacArthur, Commanding General, USAFFE, the Silver Star on or about February 1942, upon order of the undersigned Commanding General, 21st Division, for outstanding gallantry in action when on or about 16 January 1942, as a 3rd Lieut., he attacked with a patrol of three men a superior enemy infiltrating force in Barrio Guitol, Balanga, Bataan, and drove away with heavy casualties this enemy force which had surprised the 21st Division in bivouac and had threatened to rout the troops at rest.

On or about the latter part of March 1942, 1st Lieut. Marcos. While Assistant Intelligence Officer for the 21st Division, USAFFE, in Bataan, was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism beyond the call of duty, by order of the Commanding General, USAFFE (General Douglas MacArthur) for volunteering and succeeding in attacking  and destroying an enemy infiltrating column armed with four battalion guns (70 mm artillery pieces), blowing up the enemy artillery dump and killing in combat twelve enemy officers and sixteen enemy enlisted men, when the 21st, 31st, and 51st Divisions were demoralized and almost routed by this enemy infiltrating column.

Brigadier General Calisto Duque, Deputy Chief of Staff, attested that major Ferdinand E. Marcos received four Purple Hearts for wounds received in action on or about 9 April 1942 during the epic battle in Mount Samat, Bataan and for other earlier separate encounters in Bataan.

Medals earned for services in the United States Armed Forces:

Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal
American Defense Service Medal
World War II Victory Medal

Recommended by General Jonathan Wainwright for the U.S. Congressinal Medal of Honor, attested to by his Commanding Officer, General Mateo Capinpin of the Division, to which Major Marcos belonged. Major Marcos was recommending for award of the Congressional Medal of Honor for extraordinary heroism and valor and the call of duty in suicidal action against overwhelming enemy forces at Salian on or about 22 January 1942. The recommebdation was transmitted on 3 April 1942 up to the date of surrender of Bataan on 9 April 1942, apparently in view of the confusion and concerted enemy attack resulting in the surrender of the Bataan Peninsula, action was taken by General Wainwright on the recommendation. The papers were logdged in the old War Department and the Pentagon in Washington D.C.


Posted in Part V | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

III. President Ferdinand Marcos

Posted by rommelsibay on October 14, 2009


FIRST TERM (1965-1969)

Ferdinand Marcos’ first term as President of the Republic of the Philippines began in 1965. First on President Marcos’ agenda as President was the immediate construction of roads, bridges and public works, which included 16,000 kilometers of feeder roads, 30,000 lineal meters of permanent bridges, a generator with an electric power capacity of one million kilowatts (1,000,000 kW) and water services to eight regions and 38 localities. He also sought to increase the national defense against smuggling, crime and graft and corruption. It was in this term that the North Diversion Road, now known as the North Luzon Expressway was constructed with the help of the AFP engineering construction battalion. [1]

When the Vietnam War broke out, President Marcos made an official request in February 1966 for congressional approval to send a combat engineer battalion to the assistance of South Vietnam.[2] The Marcos administration sent over 10,450 Filipino soldiers through the Philippine Civil Affairs Assistance Group (PHLCAAG)

SECOND TERM (1969-1972)

Because of his impressive performance, President Marcos was reelected in 1969. Marcos had the most infrastructure and constitutional accomplishments more than any other President the country had. Though in his second term, economic crisis hit the Philippines brought by external and internal forces. This economic crisis was brought about by effects of the Cold War; the increase of leftists throughout the provinces. To add to this, due to the response of the West to aid the Arab-Israeli conflict, the Oil producing countries decided to cut back oil production resulting in higher fuel prices worldwide. Natural calamities also played a factor and ravaged infrastructure and the agricultural sector leading to uncontrolled increases in the prices of prime commodities.

The second term of Marcos was marred by violent studentry and the re-emergence of the communist movement. On January 30, 1970, now known as the First Quarter Storm, 50,000 student demonstrators stormed pushing for educatuoMalacanang Palace burning part of a medical building and crashing through Gate 4 of the palace with a fire truck forcibly commandeered by the demonstrators. The Metropolitan Command and Philippine Constabulary was had no choice but to use force on the crowd; gunfire was exchanged and tear gas grenades were used to disperse the crowd. 4 persons were killed from both sides and numbers injured.

The violent protests continued over the rest of the year. Explosions of Pillboxes in a number of schools, students in the University of the Philippines boycotted their classes. Universities such as San Sebastian College, University of the East, Letran College, Mapua Institute of Technology, the University of Sto. Tomas all partook in the violent protests which led to President Marcos to describe these demonstrations as an “act of insurrection”.


Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972 by Proclamation No. 1081 due to the rising wave of lawlessness and the threat of a Communist Insurgency.


Posted in Part III | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

IV. Marcos Deserted Achievements

Posted by rommelsibay on October 14, 2009

IV. Marcos Deserted Accomplishments

It is a Filipino trait to have long memories on the mistakes one has done and has short memories on the good one has accomplished. This axiom defines the invictus of President Ferdinand Marcos. The fictioned awful acts attributed to him and to his family shunned his achievements and contributions to our country.

Looking back at history, during the Marcos administration, social justice finds concrete translation in development plans and programs. These interventions were focused on eliminating illiteracy, expanding employment opportunities, sharing the fruits of development equitably and introducing requisite of institutional change. The measures of development—the Gross National Product (GNP), literacy rate, and life expectancy had been secured during his lead. Let us count the ways:

I. Food sufficiency
A. Green Revolution
Production of rice was increased through promoting the cultivation of IR-8 hybrid rice. In 1968 the Philippines became self-sufficient in rice, the first time in history since the American period. It also exported rice worth US$7 million.
B. Blue Revolution
Marine species like prawn, mullet, milkfish, and golden tilapia were being produced and distributed to farmers at a minimum cost. Today, milkfish and prawns contribute substantially to foreign exchange income.
C. Liberalized Credit
More than one thousand rural banks spread all over the country resulting to the accessibility of credit to finance purchase of agricultural inputs, hired labor, and harvesting expenses at very low interest rate. During 1981-1985, credit was available without interest and collateral arrangements. Some of the credit programs were the ff:
1. Biyayang Dagat (credit support for fishermen)
2. Bakahang Barangay –supported fattening of 40,000 head of cattle in farmer backyards
3. Masaganang Maisan, Maisagana, and Expanded Yellow Corn Program –supported 1.4 Million farmers through P4.7 Billion loans from 1975-1985
4. Gulayan sa Kalusugan and Pagkain ng Bayan Programs –provided grants and loans of P12.4 Million to encourage backyard and communal production of vegetables and improve nutrition of Filipino households
5. Kilusang Kabuhayan at Kaunlaran (KKK)—supported 25,000 entrepreneurial projects through P1.8 Billion and helping 500,000 beneficiaries
D. Decontrol Program
Price control polices were implemented on rice and corn to provide greater incentive to farmers to produce more. Deregulation of trading in commodities like sugar and coconut and agricultural inputs like fertilizer were done for more efficient marketing and trading arrangements.
II. Education Reform
Access to free education widened during the Marcos Administration. The biggest portion of the budget was allotted for Educational Programs (P58.7 Billion in 20 years). The literacy rate climbed from 72% in 1965 to 93% in 1985 and almost 100% in Metro Manila on the same year.

III. Agrarian Reform
Tenant’s Emancipation Act of 1972 or PD 27 was implemented without bloodshed. This was the first Land Reform Code our country. Since it was implemented until December 1985, 1.2 million farmers benefited, either they became the owner or leaseholder in more than 1.3 million hectares of rice and corn lands.

IV. Primary Health Care
The Primary Health Care (PHC) Program made medical care accessible to millions of Filipinos in the remotest barrios of the country. This program was even awarded by United Nations as the most effective and most responsive health program among the third world countries. With PHC life expectancy increased from 53.7 years in 1965 to 65 years in 1985. Infant mortality rate also declined from 73 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1965 to 58 in 1984.

V. Housing for the masses
Bagong Lipunan Improvement of Sites and Services (BLISS) Housing project had expanded the government’s housing program for the low-income group.  Massive slum upgrading projects have improved to 14,000 lots in 1985 from 2,500 in 1976.   The Tondo foreshore, for instance, is one of the biggest and most miserable slum colonies in Asia was transformed into a decent community. A total of 230,000 housing units were constructed from 1975-1985.
The laws on socialized housing were conceptualized by President Marcos through a series of legal issuances from the funding, the lending, mortgaging and to the collection of the loans. These are governed by the Home Mutual Development Fund (Pag-Ibig Fund), the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) and the National Home Mortgage Finance which remain intact up to the present

VI. Energy Self-Reliance
Indigenous energy sources were developed like hydro, geothermal, dendrothermal, coal, biogas and biomass. The country became the first in Asia to use dendrothermal and in five years we became number two, next to US, in geothermal utilization. The extensive energy resource research and exploration and development resulted to reduction of oil imports from 100% in 1965 to 40% in 1985 and in the same year, more than 1,400 towns and cities were fully energized.

VII. Export Development
During 1985 textile and textile products like garments and embroideries, furniture and rattan products, marine products like prawns and milkfish, raw silk, shoes, dehydrated and fresh fruits were exported aside from the traditional export products like coconut, sugar, logs, lumber and veneer. The maritime industry was also dominated by Filipinos wherein 50,000 seamen were employed by various world shipping companies.

VIII. Labor Reform
The Labor code was promulgated which expanded the concerns  of the Magna Carta of Labor to extend greater protection to labor, promote employment, and human resource development. The minimum wages of the workers were boosted through the guaranteed 13th month pay and cost of living allowances. Employment potentials of Filipinos were enhanced through skills training. During that time, there were 896,000 out-of-school youths and unemployed graduated from various training centers all over the country.

IX. Unprecedented Infrastructure Growth
The country’s road network had improved from 55,778 kilometers in 1965 to 77,950 in five years (1970), and eventually reached 161,000 kilometers in 1985. Construction of irrigation facilities was also done that made 1.5 million hectares of land irrigated and increased the farmer’s harvest and income. In addition, nationwide telecommunication systems—telephone systems, telex exchange too centers, and interprovincial toll stations were also built.

X. Political Reform
The structure of government established by President Marcos remains substantially the same except the change of name, inclusive of superficial features in laws, to give a semblance of change from that of President Marcos regime.
The only significant department that was abolished after the departure of President Marcos was the Department of Ministry of Human Settlements under Imelda Romualdez Marcos. It was dismantled but the functions were distributed to different offices.

XII. Fiscal Reform
Government finances were stabilized by higher revenue collections and loans from treasury bonds, foreign lending institutions and foreign governments.

XI. Peace and Order
In 1966, more than 100 important smugglers were arrested; in three years 1966-68 they arrested a total of 5,000. Military men involved in smuggling were forced to retire.
Peace and order significantly improved in most provinces however situations in Manila and some provinces continued to deteriorate until the imposition of martial law in 1972.

Posted in Part IV | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »